Xanthosoma  tropical aroids grown as ornamentals or for food (leaves, tubers). Tops are frost sensitive, tubers will survive some freezing but not much. Tropical Americas. Araceae. rev 6/2016

robustum    dark foliage    young clump      an evergreen (frost free!) to deciduous tuberous plant, with very dark blue green, arrow-shaped leaves reaching about 24-30" tall. Use it for a tropical-foliage effect on a modest-sized plant. Best in containers, with at least half a day of sun. USDA zone 9 (zone 8?)/Sunset 8-9, 14-24. Mexico. rev 9/2016

sagittifolium 'University of Massachusetts
'   arrowhead leaves     mature Huntington specimen   
flower cluster     another Huntington plant, growing partially in water   a South American relative of of taro (Colocasia esculenta), grown as a source of leaves which are cooked and served as a popular vegetable dish in Brazil and Western Africa. The tuber, which has many names (mafafa for one), is used like a potato. This U-Mass form we have very recently determined is an improved, highly productive release intended for improving the diets and lives of tropical populations. Its trial in Massachusetts in 2009 showed it has high potential as a locally grown, warm-season leafy-greens crop for North American markets. It was well adapted even to their northerly climate, produced heavily and continuously, was enthusiastically embraced by Brazilian ex-pats, proved popular with first-timers and overall sold very well. I'll be trying this as a home crop myself this summer! Back ten years ago, and lacking that info, we tried it simply as a tropical foliage plant. It overwinters here handsomely, without direct frost, grows vigorously even without high heat, hasn't suffered cold/wet root-rot losses like many tropical foliage plants can, and is just deeee-manding a reintroduction as a faster! better! stronger! garden plant. That you can eat. Full sun, intermittently wet but well-drained soil, feed it for bigger everything. Winter deciduous with frost, USDA zone 9 (zone 8? zone 7?)/Sunset 8-9, 14-24. Considered a synomym of X. violaceum, but has been much, much more vigorous and reliable for us than anything received under that name. Central and South America. rev 9/2016